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1820s to 1900s

Page history last edited by kml652@mail.harvard.edu 14 years, 8 months ago


1820s to the 1900s:  Movement Towards the County System


          The 1820s marked the beginning of a movement towards county control of certification, and became a dominant feature across the USA by 1860.  The impetus for this change came from “growing recognition by the public of the need for competent examiners, not locally available, and for opportunity to select candidates from a broader geographic area” (Kinney, 1964, p. 47).  At the same time, there was a shift from oral to written exams, with nearly all states putting in place general competencies and content subjects to be examined (Sharpe, 1984; Angus, 2001). 


          However, in the New England states like Massachusetts, “the predominance of the town and the influence of the democratic tradition were too strong to permit” a similar shift in authority (Kinney, 1964, p. 45).  No county system developed in Massachusetts, and the power to certify teachers remained tightly in the hands of local officials until 1954.



<<Return to Section 1: History of Teacher Certification in the USA and Massachusetts>>    

<<Go Back to Phase I: Colonization to the Mid-19th Century>> 

<<Go to Phase III: Turn of the Century to the 1960s>>

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